Stored Procedure: Stored Procedure in SQL Server can be defined as the set of logical group of SQL statements which are grouped to perform a specific task. There are many benefits of using a stored procedure. The main benefit of using a stored procedure is that it increases the performance of the database.The other benefits of using the Stored Procedure are given below.
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Benefits of Using the Stored Procedure
- One of the main benefits of using the Stored procedure is that it reduces the amount of information sent to the database server. It can become a more important benefit when the bandwidth of the network is less. Since if we send the SQL query (statement) which is executing in a loop to the server through network and the network gets disconnected, then the execution of the SQL statement doesn't return the expected results, if the SQL query is not used between Transaction statement and rollback statement is not used.
- Compilation step is required only once when the stored procedure is created. Then after it does not require recompilation before executing unless it is modified and reutilizes the same execution plan whereas the SQL statements need to be compiled every time whenever it is sent for execution even if we send the same SQL statement every time.
- It helps in re usability of the SQL code because it can be used by multiple users and by multiple clients since we need to just call the stored procedure instead of writing the same SQL statement every time. It helps in reducing the development time.
- Stored procedure is helpful in enhancing the security since we can grant permission to the user for executing the Stored procedure instead of giving permission on the tables used in the Stored procedure.
- Sometimes, it is useful to use the database for storing the business logic in the form of stored procedure since it makes it secure and if any change is needed in the business logic, then we may only need to make changes in the stored procedure and not in the files contained on the web server.
How to Write a Stored Procedure in SQL ServerSuppose there is a table called
tbl_Studentswhose structure is given below:
CREATE TABLE tbl_Students ( [Studentid] [int] IDENTITY(1,1) NOT NULL, [Firstname] [nvarchar](200) NOT NULL, [Lastname] [nvarchar](200) NULL, [Email] [nvarchar](100) NULL )Support we insert the following data into the above table:
Insert into tbl_Students (Firstname, lastname, Email) Values('Vivek', 'Johari', 'firstname.lastname@example.org') Insert into tbl_Students (Firstname, lastname, Email) Values('Pankaj', 'Kumar', 'email@example.com') Insert into tbl_Students (Firstname, lastname, Email) Values('Amit', 'Singh', 'firstname.lastname@example.org') Insert into tbl_Students (Firstname, lastname, Email) Values('Manish', 'Kumar', 'email@example.com') Insert into tbl_Students (Firstname, lastname, Email) Values('Abhishek', 'Singh', 'firstname.lastname@example.org')Now, while writing a Stored Procedure, the first step will be to write the
Create Procedurestatement as the first statement:
Create Procedure Procedure-name ( Input parameters , Output Parameters (If required) ) As Begin Sql statement used in the stored procedure EndNow, suppose we need to create a Stored Procedure which will return a
studentidis given as the input parameter to the stored procedure. Then, the Stored Procedure will be:
/* Getstudentname is the name of the stored procedure*/ Create PROCEDURE Getstudentname( @studentid INT --Input parameter , Studentid of the student ) AS BEGIN SELECT Firstname+' '+Lastname FROM tbl_Students WHERE studentid=@studentid ENDWe can also collect the
studentname in the output parameter of the Stored Procedure. For example:
/* GetstudentnameInOutputVariable is the name of the stored procedure which uses output variable @Studentname to collect the student name returns by the stored procedure */ Create PROCEDURE GetstudentnameInOutputVariable ( @studentid INT, --Input parameter , Studentid of the student @studentname VARCHAR(200) OUT -- Out parameter declared with the help of OUT keyword ) AS BEGIN SELECT @studentname= Firstname+' '+Lastname FROM tbl_Students WHERE studentid=@studentid ENDNote:-/* */ is used to write comments in one or multiple lines
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How to Alter a Stored Procedure in a SQL ServerIn SQL Server, a stored procedure can be modified with the help of the
Alterkeyword. Now if we want to get
studentemail address through the same procedure
GetstudentnameInOutputVariable. So we need to modify it by adding one more output parameter "
@StudentEmail" which is shown below:
/* Stored Procedure GetstudentnameInOutputVariable is modified to collect the email address of the student with the help of the Alert Keyword */ Alter PROCEDURE GetstudentnameInOutputVariable ( @studentid INT, --Input parameter , Studentid of the student @studentname VARCHAR (200) OUT, -- Output parameter to collect the student name @StudentEmail VARCHAR (200)OUT -- Output Parameter to collect the student email ) AS BEGIN SELECT @studentname= Firstname+' '+Lastname, @StudentEmail=email FROM tbl_Students WHERE studentid=@studentid ENDNote: It is not necessary that a stored procedure will have to return. There can be a case when a stored procedure doesn't returns anything. For example, a stored procedure can be used to
updatea SQL statement. For example, the below stored procedure is used to
insertvalue into the table
/* This Stored procedure is used to Insert value into the table tbl_students. */ Create Procedure InsertStudentrecord ( @StudentFirstName Varchar(200), @StudentLastName Varchar(200), @StudentEmail Varchar(50) ) As Begin Insert into tbl_Students (Firstname, lastname, Email) Values(@StudentFirstName, @StudentLastName,@StudentEmail) End
Execution of the Stored Procedure in SQL Server
Execution of the Stored Procedure which doesn't have an Output ParameterA stored procedure is used in the SQL Server with the help of the "
Execute" or "
Exec" Keyword. For example, if we want to execute the stored procedure "
Getstudentname", then we will use the following statement.
Execute Getstudentname 1 Exec Getstudentname 1
Execution of the Stored Procedure using the Output ParameterIf we want to execute the Stored procedure "
GetstudentnameInOutputVariable" , then we first need to declare the variable to collect the output values. For example:
Declare @Studentname as nvarchar(200) -- Declaring the variable to collect the Studentname Declare @Studentemail as nvarchar(50) -- Declaring the variable to collect the Studentemail Execute GetstudentnameInOutputVariable 1 , @Studentname output, @Studentemail output select @Studentname,@Studentemail -- "Select" Statement is used to show the output from Procedure
SummaryIn the end, we can say that a Stored procedure not only enhances the possibility of reusing the code and execution plan, but it also increases the performance of the database by reducing the traffic of the network by reducing the amount of information sent over the network.